Brazilian activist Marcos Arruda exposes the problems with his government’s economic policies and the role of the IMF in a new book. External Debt, Brazil and the International Financial Crisis assesses the history and implications of development lending to Brazil and discusses the programme agreed with the IMF in 1998 which has led to major cuts in social expenditure. Arruda concludes with proposals developed through his work with Policy Alternatives for the Southern Cone.
Originally created to help the poor escape poverty and deprivation, the World Bank became the most important advocate for the commercialised microcredit model. Yet, critics argued it undermined the chances of sustainable and equitable development to create a poverty trap of historic proportions.
While the World Development Report (WDR) 2018 on education has some redeeming features, it is part of the Bank's longstanding very narrow view of education, and is silent on education financing.
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