The Bank has recently begun to recognise evidence of links between peoples’ empowerment, growth and improved project performance. However, it recognises that “there remain many questions about what empowerment means, how it applies to the Bank’s work, and what actions should be undertaken”. It has published an Empowerment and Poverty Reduction Sourcebook to start to define its approach in more detail. This sourcebook will also inform the World Bank’s social development strategy which is now under production.
Stephen Kidd critiques Bretton Woods Institutions' approach to targeted social protection systems, arguing the poor lose out the most.
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