US-based agricultural giant Cargill has filed a $130 million claim against Poland at the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), the World Bank arbitration tribunal. The multinational alleges a breach of a 1994 US-Poland investment treaty. Cargill says it has received treatment less favourable than its competitors in the Polish sugar industry, after changes were made to quotas as a requirement of EU accession.
Originally created to help the poor escape poverty and deprivation, the World Bank became the most important advocate for the commercialised microcredit model. Yet, critics argued it undermined the chances of sustainable and equitable development to create a poverty trap of historic proportions.
While the World Development Report (WDR) 2018 on education has some redeeming features, it is part of the Bank's longstanding very narrow view of education, and is silent on education financing.
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