The West African nation of Senegal became the first francophone country to sign up to a Policy Support Instrument (PSI), a Fund programme for low-income countries that involves oversight and conditionality but no financing. So far only African countries – Nigeria, Uganda, Mozambique, Tanzania and Cape Verde – have signed up for the programme. NGO ActionAid International issued a policy brief questioning whether the PSI offers a break from the PRGF and enables countries to pursue policies for long-term development and growth. It concludes: “In its two and a half years of existence, the PSI has proven itself to be a continuation of the PRGF … insist[ing] on highly restrictive monetary and fiscal policies and refusing to endorse much-needed state investments in development”.
Originally created to help the poor escape poverty and deprivation, the World Bank became the most important advocate for the commercialised microcredit model. Yet, critics argued it undermined the chances of sustainable and equitable development to create a poverty trap of historic proportions.
While the World Development Report (WDR) 2018 on education has some redeeming features, it is part of the Bank's longstanding very narrow view of education, and is silent on education financing.
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