In March the IMF approved a $17.5 billion four-year extended arrangement for Ukraine (see Observer Summer 2014, Spring 2014). This arrangement replaces the April 2014 Stand-By Arrangement that had pledged the same amount but had only disbursed $5 billion. Standard Bank’s Tim Ash told The Economist that “this is NOT a significantly increased IMF programme, and Ms Lagarde should not try and sell it as such”. Although the US and EU suggested that they may provide up to $4 billion additional dollars, it is unclear whether the Ukraine will get the $40 billion-worth of cash Christine Lagarde anticipated. In March, IMF European deputy director Thanos Arvanitis confirmed that payments up to another $5 billion will be made prior to a required debt restructuring, which according to news agency Bloomberg “doesn’t really add up”. Bloomberg argued that the loan presumes Ukraine will successfully “impose a haircut on bondholders”, calculated to be worth $15 billion, but there is no guarantee that Ukraine’s creditors will forgive any of the money they are owed.
Originally created to help the poor escape poverty and deprivation, the World Bank became the most important advocate for the commercialised microcredit model. Yet, critics argued it undermined the chances of sustainable and equitable development to create a poverty trap of historic proportions.
While the World Development Report (WDR) 2018 on education has some redeeming features, it is part of the Bank's longstanding very narrow view of education, and is silent on education financing.
Donate to the Bretton Woods Project
The Bretton Woods Project is an ActionAid hosted project (UK registered charity no. 274467).