Owed by the World Bank and richer countries to citizens of borrowing, poorer countries, ecological debt includes atmospheric pollution and other costs to the global environment of unsustainable living. See Andrew Simmons, “Ecological Debt: the health of the planet and the wealth of nations”, 2005: Pluto Press.
New BWP briefing offers critical gender analysis of World Bank lending instrument to borrowing countries.
At 75, the World Bank and IMF face a crisis of multilateralism in no small part of their own making as failed economic policies have resulted in skepticism of the international order they helped to create.
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