Owed by the World Bank and richer countries to citizens of borrowing, poorer countries, ecological debt includes atmospheric pollution and other costs to the global environment of unsustainable living. See Andrew Simmons, “Ecological Debt: the health of the planet and the wealth of nations”, 2005: Pluto Press.
World Bank Enabling the Business of Agriculture rankings prescribe land privatisation at the expense of family farmers, pastoralists, and Indigenous Peoples.
As debt crises across the African continent continue to soar, concerns are raised about the gendered impact of debt-servicing conditions imposed by international financial institutions.
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