MICs are defined by the World Bank as having: “1. Similar incomes (by definition between $3,036 and 9,385 per capita); 2. Better Policies (but not consistently so); 3. Better institutions (but not all); 4. Better access to external finance (but only 22 out of 69 were investment grade and another 20 had volatile access); 5. Alternatives to the Bank for funds and advice; a test of the Bank’s value added.” From WB Conference on Effectiveness of Policies and Reforms: 4/10/2004
World Bank Enabling the Business of Agriculture rankings prescribe land privatisation at the expense of family farmers, pastoralists, and Indigenous Peoples.
As debt crises across the African continent continue to soar, concerns are raised about the gendered impact of debt-servicing conditions imposed by international financial institutions.
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