Charges for primary education and health care at the point of use, user fees were introduced in poor countries by the World Bank and other donors in the 1980-90’s to tackle severe under-funding. The financial burden of user fees restricts access to basic resources and the World Bank states that it no longer supports them but is so far unable to eliminate them despite pressure to do so.
World Bank Enabling the Business of Agriculture rankings prescribe land privatisation at the expense of family farmers, pastoralists, and Indigenous Peoples.
As debt crises across the African continent continue to soar, concerns are raised about the gendered impact of debt-servicing conditions imposed by international financial institutions.
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